SoLIM Homepage

About SoLIM

Homepage of Professor Zhu

The Group



SoLIM projects

General Overview of SoLIM

Overview of SoLIM (March, 2003)
PDF (316KB, 25 pages)

SoLIM Workshop Booklet (February 2001)
PDF (750KB, 14 pages)

USDA Leadership Meeting Booklet (September 2002)
PDF (794KB, 12 pages)

Research Papers

Overall Framework

Zhu, A.X. 2008. Detail Digital Soil Survey: Models and Methods (in Chinese), Science Press, Beijing, China, ISBN:978-7-03-021521-5, 227 p. 朱阿兴等. 精细土壤资源普查模型与方法. 北京:科学出版社, 2008,227 p., ISBN:978-7-03-021521-5.

Zhu, A.X., B.L. Li, L. Yang, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, G.L. Zhang, Q.G. Cai, C.H. Zhou, 2005. “Predictive Soil Mapping Based on A GIS, Expert Knowledge, and Fuzzy Logic Framework and Its Application Prospects in China”, ACTA Pedologica Sinica, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 844-851. 朱阿兴,李宝林,杨琳等. 基于GIS、模糊逻辑和专家知识的土壤制图及其在我国应用前景. 土壤学报, 2005,42(5):844-851.

Zhu, A.X., B. Hudson, J. E. Burt, and K. Lubich, 2001. "Soil mapping using GIS, expert knowledge, and fuzzy logic", Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 65, pp. 1463-1472.

Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, 1994. “A knowledge-based approach to data integration for soil mapping”, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 408-418.

Knowledge Extraction

From Experts

Liu, J., Zhu, A.X., 2009. “Mapping with words: a new approach to automated digital soil survey”, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 293-311.

Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, and J.E. Burt. 2006. "Fuzzy soil mapping based on prototype category theory", Geoderma, Vol. 136, pp. 774-787.

Zhu, A.X. 1999. "A personal constructed-based knowledge acquisition process for natural resource mapping using GIS", International Journal of Geographic Information Systems., Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 119-141.

From Maps

Qi, F., Zhu, A-X., Pei, T., Qin, C., and Burt, J.E., 2008, “Knowledge discovery from area-class resource maps: capturing prototype effects”, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 223-237.

Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, 2003. "Knowledge discovery from soil maps using inductive learning", International Journal of Geographical Information Science,, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 771-795.

Zhu, A.X. 2000. Mapping soil landscape as spatial continua: the neural network approach, Water Resources Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 663-677.

From Purposive Sampling (Fuzzy Clustering)

Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, F. Qi, C. Qin, B. Li, T. Pei, “An integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy for spatial sampling and its application in digital soil mapping”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science,2012, pp.1-23.

Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, 2011. “A Soil Sampling Method Based on Representativeness Grade of Sampling Points”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (Chinese). 杨琳,朱阿兴,秦承志,李宝林,裴韬. 一种基于样点代表性等级的土壤采样设计方法,土壤学报,2011, 48(5): 938-946.

Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, W.L. Qiu, Z.G. Xu, 2010. “A purposive sampling design method based on typical points and its application in soil mapping”, Progress in Geographic Science (Chinese), Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 279-286. 杨琳,朱阿兴,秦承志,李宝林,裴韬,邱维理,徐志刚. 基于典型点的目的性采样设计方法及其在土壤制图中的应用,地理科学进展,2010,29(3):279-286.

Zhu, A.X., L. Yang, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, 2010. “Construction of quantitative relationships between soil and environment using fuzzy c-means clustering”, Geoderma, Vol. 155, No. 3-4, pp. 166-174.

Zhu, A.X., L. Yang; B. Li, C. Qin, E. English, J. E. Burt, C.H. Zhou, 2008. “Purposefully sampling for digital soil mapping”. In: A.E. Hartemink, A.B. McBratney and M.L. Mendonca Santos (eds.) Digital Soil Mapping with Limited Data, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 233-245.

Yang, L., A. X, Zhu, B.L. Li,C. Qin, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, R.K. Li, Q.G. Cai, 2007. Extraction of Knowledge about Soil-Environment Relationship for Soil Mapping Using Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) Clustering. Acta Pedologica Sinica (Chinese), Vol. 44 (5), pp. 16-23. 杨琳,朱阿兴,李宝林,秦承志,裴韬,刘宝元,李润奎,蔡强国. 应用模糊c均值聚类获取土壤制图所需土壤-环境关系知识的方法研究. 土壤学报,2007,44(5):16-23.

From Typical Cases

Shi, X., A.X. Zhu, J.E. Burt, F. Qi, and D. Simonson, 2004. "A case-based reasoning approach to fuzzy soil mapping", Soil Science Society of America Journal,Vol. 68, pp.885-894.

Lazy Learning from Ad-hoc Samples

Liu, J., A.X. Zhu, S. Zhang, C. Qin, 2013. “Large-scaled Soil Attribute Mapping Method Based on Individual Representativeness of Sample Sites”,ACTA PEDOLOGICA SINICA (in Chinese. 刘京, 朱阿兴, 张淑杰, 秦承志基于样点个体代表性的大尺度土壤属性制图方法,土壤学报,2013, 50(1): 12-20

Zhang, S., A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, L. Yang, 2012. “An Integrative Sampling Scheme for Digital Soil Mapping”, Process in georraphy (in Chinese).张淑杰,朱阿兴,刘京,杨琳. 整合已有土壤样点的数字土壤制图补样方案设计研究, 地理科学进展, 2012, 31(10): 1317-1324.

Zhang, S., A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, L. Yang. “Sample-based Digital Soil Mapping Methods and Related Sampling Schemes”, Soils (in Chinese). 张淑杰,朱阿兴,刘京,杨琳, 基于样点的数字土壤属性制图方法及样点设计综述, 土壤. 2012,12:881-889.

Inference and Product Derivation

Soil Inference under Fuzzy Logic

Zhu, A.X., 2008. “Rule based mapping”. In: J.P. Wilson and A.S. Fotheringham (eds.) The Handbook of Geographic Information Science, Blackwell, Malden, MA, pp. 273-291.

Zhu, A.X., 2006. “Fuzzy logic models in soil science”. In Sabine Grunwald and Mary E. Collins (eds.) Environmental soil-landscape modeling : geographic information technologies and pedometrics, CRC/Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 215-239.

Zhu, A.X., 1998. "Fuzzy inference of soil patterns: implications for watershed modeling", in D.L. Corwin, K. Loague, and T.R. Ellsworth (eds.) Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistical and Solute Transport Modeling to the Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Vadose Zone, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Zhu, A.X. 1997. "A similarity model for representing soil spatial information", Geoderma, Vol. 77, pp. 217-242.

Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, B. Dutton, T. Nimlos, 1996. "Automated soil inference under fuzzy logic", Ecological Modelling, Vol. 90, pp. 123-145.

Soil Property Mapping

Zhu, A.X., F. Qi, A. Moore, J.E. Burt, 2010. “Prediction of soil properties using fuzzy membership”, Geoderma, Vol. 158, pp. 199-206.

Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, 2009. “Mapping soil property using fuzzy membership: an example from He Shan, Heilongjiang Province”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (Chinese), Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 9-15. 杨琳,朱阿兴,秦承志,李宝林,裴韬,刘宝元. 运用模糊隶属度进行土壤属性制图的研究—以黑龙江鹤山农场研究区为例. 土壤学报, 46(1): 9-15.

Zhu, A.X. , A. Moore, J.E. Burt, 2006. "Prediction of Soil Properties Using Fuzzy Membership", Proceedings of the 2nd Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping, July 4-7, 2006, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.(6 pages).

Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, R. Vertessy, B. Dutton, 1997. "Derivation of soil properties using a Soil-Land Inference Model (SoLIM)", Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 523-533.

Uncertainty Quantification and Visualization

Burt, J.E., A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, 2011. “Depicting classification uncertainty using perception based color models”, Annals of GIS, 17(3): 147-153

Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Comparing three methods for modeling the uncertainty in knowledge discovery from area-class soil maps”, Computers & Geosciences 37, 1425-1437.

Qi, F., and Zhu, A. X., 2006. “Modeling Uncertainty in Knowledge Discovery for Classifying Geographic Entities with Fuzzy Boundaries”. In: A. Riedl, W. Kainz, and G. Elmes (eds.) Progress in Spatial Data Handling:12th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Burt, J.E. , A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, 2005. "Depicting fuzzy soil class uncertainty using perception-based color models", Proceedings of the 11th World Congress of International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA2005): Fuzzy Logic, Soft Computing and Computational Intelligence, July 28-31, 2005, Beijing, China, pp. 112-117.

Zhu, A.X., 2001. “Modeling spatial variation of classification uncertainty under fuzzy logic”. In C. Hunsaker, M.F. Goodchild, M. Friedl, and Case (eds.) Spatial Uncertainty In Ecology, Springer, New York, pp. 330-350.

Zhu, A.X. 1997. "Measuring uncertainty in class assignment for natural resource maps under fuzzy logic", Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 63, pp. 1195-1202.

Soil Covariate Extraction

Land Surface Feedback Dynamics

Liu, F., X. Geng, A.X. Zhu*, W. Fraser, 2012. “Soil texture mapping over low relief areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Geoderma, 171–172 (2012) 44–52.

Liu, F., A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, 2010. “Application of High Temporal Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing in Identifying Soil Texture Patterns.” Journal of Geo-Information Science (Chinese), No. 5, pp. 773-740. 刘峰,朱阿兴,裴韬,李宝林,秦承志. 高时间分辨率遥感在土壤质地空间变化识别中的应用,地球信息科学学报 ,(5):733-740.

Zhu, A.X., F. Liu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, G.H. Liu, Y.J. Wang, Y.N. Chen, X.W. Ma, F. Qi, C.H. Zhou, 2010. “Differentiation of soil conditions over flat areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 74, NO. 3, pp. 861-869.

Liu, F., A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Qin, G.H. Liu, Y.J. Wang, C.H. Zhou, 2009. “Differentiation of soil spatial variation using land surface dynamics captured by remote sensing techniques”, Soil Information (Chinese), Vol. 40 (3), pp. 501-508. 刘峰,朱阿兴,李宝林,裴韬,秦承志, 刘高焕,王英杰,周成虎,2009. 利用陆面动态反馈模式来识别土壤类型的空间差异. 土壤通报,40 (3):501-508.

Digital Terrain Analysis

Qin C.Z.*, L-L. Bao; A.X. Zhu, X.M Hu, B. Qin. 2012. “Artificial surfaces simulating complex terrain types for evaluating grid-based flow direction algorithms”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 2012,1-18. doi: 10.1080/13658816.2012.737920.

Gao, J., J.E. Burt, A.X. Zhu, 2012. “Neighborhood size and spatial scale in raster-based slope calculations”, International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 26(10):1959-1978.

Bao, L.L., C.Z. Qin, A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Quantitative error assessment of topographic wetness endex algorithms”, Progress in Geographic Science (Chinese). 包黎莉,秦承志,朱阿兴. 地形湿度指数算法的误差定量评价研究,地理科学进展,2011, 30(1):57-64.

Qin, C.Z., A.X Zhu, T. Pei, B.L. Li, S. Scholten, T. Behrens, C.H. Zhou, 2011. “An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient”. Precision Agriculture. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 32-43. doi: 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y.

Qin, C.Z., Y.J. Lu, W.L. Qiu, A.X. Zhu, L.Y. Zhang, L. Yang. 2010. “Application of fuzzy slope positions in predicting spatial distribution of soil property at finer scale”, Geographic Research (Chinese), Vol. 29, No. 9, pp. 1706-1714. 秦承志,卢岩君,邱维理,朱阿兴,张灵燕,杨琳. 模糊坡位信息在精细土壤属性空间推测中的应用,地理研究,2010,29(9):1706-1714.

Pei, T., C.Z. Qin, A.X. Zhu*, L. Yang, M. Luo, B.L. Li, C.H. Zhou, 2010. “Mapping soil organic matter using the topographic wetness index: A comparative study based on different flow-direction algorithms and kriging methods”, Ecological Indicator, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 610-619.

Behrens, T., A.X. Zhu, K. Schmidt, T. Scholten, 2010. “Multi-scale digital terrain analysis and feature selection for digital soil mapping”, Geoderma, Vol. 155. No. 3-4, pp. 175-185.

Qin, C.Z., Y.J. Lu, L.L. Bao, A.X. Zhu, W.L. Qiu, W.M. Cheng, 2009. “Simple digital terrain analysis software (SimDTA V1.0) and its application in fuzzy classification of slope positions”, Journal of Geo-Information Science (Chinese), Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 737-743. 秦承志,卢岩君,包黎莉,朱阿兴,邱维理,程维明. 简化数字地形分析软件(SimDTA)与应用——以嫩江流域鹤山农场的坡位模糊分类应用为例, 地球信息科学学报,2009,11(6):737-743.

Qin, C. A.X. Zhu*, X. Shi, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Zhou, 2009. “The quantification of spatial gradation of slope positions”, Geomorphology, Vol. 110, No. 3-4, pp. 152-161.

Zhu, A.X., J. E. Burt, M. Smith, R.X. Wang, J. Gao, 2008. “The impact of neighbourhood size on terrain derivatives and digital soil mapping.” In: Q. Zhou, B. Lees G. Tang (eds.) Advances in Digital Terrain Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp.333-348.

Qin, C.Z., A.X. Zhu, X. Shi, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2007. “Fuzzy inference of gradation of slope positions”, Geographical Research (Chinese), Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 1165-1174. 秦承志,朱阿兴,施迅,李宝林,裴韬,周成虎. 坡位渐变信息的模糊推理. 地理研究,26(6):1165-1174.

Qin, C., A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, L. Yang, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Zhou, 2007. “An adaptive approach to selecting flow partition exponent for multiple flow direction algorithm”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 443-458.

Shi, X., A.X. Zhu, J. Burt, W. Choi, R. Wang, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Qin, 2007. "An experiment using a circular neighborhood to calculate slope gradient from a DEM", Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing,, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 143-154.

Qin, C.Z., A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “Review of multiple flow direction algorithms based on gridded digital elevation models”, Earth Science Frontiers (Chinese), Vol.13 (3), pp. 91-98. 秦承志,朱阿兴,李宝林,裴韬,周成虎. 基于栅格DEM的多流向算法述评. 地学前缘,2006,13(3):91-98.

Qin, C.Z, L. Yang, A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “A method for computing topographic wetness index over flat terrain”, Progress in Geographic Science (Chinese). 秦承志,杨琳,朱阿兴,李宝林,裴韬,周成虎. 平缓地区地形湿度指数的计算方法. 地理科学进展,2006, 25(6):87-93.

Qin, C.Z, B.L. Li, A.X. Zhu, L. Yang, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “A strategy for allocating flow in multiple direction using down-slope gradient”, Progress in Hydrological Science (Chinese), Vol. 17 (4), pp. 450-456. 秦承志,李宝林,朱阿兴,杨琳,裴韬,周成虎. 水流分配策略随下坡坡度变化的多流向算法. 水科学进展,2006,17(4):450-456.

Smith, M., A.X. Zhu*, J.E. Burt, C. Stiles, 2006, "Effects of DEM resolution and neighborhood size on digital soil survey", Geoderma,, Vol. 137, pp. 58-69.

Shi, X., A.X. Zhu, R.X. Wang, 2005. “Fuzzy Representations Special Terrain Feature Using a Similarity-based Approach.” In Fred Petry and Vincent B. Robinson (eds.) Fuzzy modeling with spatial information for geographic problems, Springer, New York, pp. 233-251.



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